Chandrayaan 1

In 2008, India made history by launching its first lunar mission, Chandrayaan 1. The mission was a collaborative effort between the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and other international space agencies.

Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1

Goals of Chandrayaan 1

The goal of the mission was to study the Moon’s surface and mineral composition, as well as to search for evidence of water on the Moon. Chandrayaan 1 was launched on October 22, 2008, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

Payloads of Chandrayaan 1

The spacecraft consisted of an orbiter and a Moon Impact Probe (MIP), which was designed to crash into the Moon’s surface to study its composition. The orbiter had 11 scientific instruments onboard, including a high-resolution camera, a terrain-mapping camera, a Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), and a Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR).

Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1

Orbit of Chandrayaan 1

Over the course of its mission, Chandrayaan 1 orbited the Moon for 312 days and sent back valuable data to Earth. The mission was a huge success, with several important discoveries made.

Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1

Discoveries of Chandrayaan 1

One of the most significant discoveries made by Chandrayaan 1 was the detection of water on the Moon. The M3 instrument onboard the orbiter detected the presence of water molecules in the lunar soil, confirming the long-held theory that water exists on the Moon.

Chandrayaan 1 also discovered several new craters and volcanic features on the Moon’s surface. The high-resolution camera onboard the orbiter captured detailed images of the Moon’s surface, allowing scientists to study the geology of the Moon in unprecedented detail.

In addition to its scientific discoveries, Chandrayaan 1 also marked a significant milestone for India’s space program. The mission demonstrated India’s capability to launch a successful lunar mission and compete with other major spacefaring nations.

Impact of Chandrayaan 1 on Global Space Industry

Since Chandrayaan 1, India has continued to make strides in space exploration, including launching its first Mars mission, Mangalyaan, in 2013. The success of these missions has helped establish India as a major player in the global space industry.

Chandrayaan 1 was a groundbreaking mission that made several important discoveries about the Moon’s surface and mineral composition. It also marked a significant milestone for India’s space program, demonstrating the country’s capability to launch successful space missions and compete with other major spacefaring nations.

Chandrayaan 1 UPSC

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Chandrayaan 1 information

India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), made history in 2008 with the successful launch of Chandrayaan 1, the country’s first-ever lunar probe. The mission marked a significant milestone in India’s journey towards becoming a leading space power. This article explores the details of the mission, its objectives, instruments, and discoveries.

Chandrayaan 1 Launch Date

Chandrayaan 1, India’s first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

Chandrayaan 1 Launching Vehicle

The Launch Vehicle of Chadrayaan 1 was PSLV – C11.

Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1

Launch and Objectives of Chandrayaan 1

Chandrayaan 1 was launched on 22 October 2008, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. The probe weighed 1304 kg at launch and entered the lunar orbit on 8 November 2008, orbiting the moon at a distance of 100 km from the lunar surface. The primary objectives of the mission were to design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle. The mission aimed to conduct scientific experiments using instruments on the spacecraft to yield data for preparing a 3-D atlas of both the near and far sides of the moon. It also aimed to conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the lunar surface, with particular focus on magnesium, aluminium, silicon, iron, calcium, titanium, uranium, radon, and thorium. Another objective of the mission was to increase scientific knowledge and test the impact of a sub-satellite on the moon’s surface for future soft-landing missions. The mission also aimed to detect water-ice on the moon.

Instruments of Chandrayaan 1

Chandrayaan 1 carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, the USA, Germany, UK, Sweden, and Bulgaria. Five of these instruments were built in India. The instruments included Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC), Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI), Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI), X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRS), High-Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX), and Moon Impact Probe (MIP).

Discoveries of Chandrayaan 1

The mission made more than 3400 orbits around the moon and sent back to earth 70000 images of the lunar surface. Some of the images had a resolution of 5 m, which was much better than many other moon missions that provided only a 100 m resolution. The mission sent its first image of the entire earth on 25 March 2009, captured by the Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC). The TMC also captured images of the landing site of the U.S. spacecraft Apollo 15.

The mission confirmed the presence of water on the moon’s surface. Chandrayaan 1 also detected titanium, confirmed the presence of calcium, and acquired the most accurate measurements of iron, aluminium, and magnesium on the moon. Scientists from ISRO and other participating agencies termed the mission a success with 90% of the stated objectives being seen through.

The MIP was successfully deployed, and data received from it confirmed the presence of water on the moon’s surface. Chandrayaan 1 also confirmed the magma ocean hypothesis, which implies that the moon was completely molten once.

Cost and Awards of Chandrayaan 1

The estimated project cost was Rs. 386 Crore or US$60 million. Chandrayaan 1 received many accolades and awards, including the AIAA SPACE 2009 Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), International Co-operation Award 2008 from the International Lunar Exploration Working Group, and the 2009 Space Pioneer Award from the USA-based National Space Society.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-1 was a landmark mission for India’s space exploration program, showcasing the country’s capabilities in designing, developing, launching, and operating a spacecraft for scientific exploration of the moon. The mission successfully achieved most of its objectives, including the discovery of water on the moon and confirming the magma ocean hypothesis. The mission also set a new standard for high-resolution imaging of the lunar surface. Despite the mission ending prematurely, it remains a significant achievement for India’s space program and paved the way for future missions like Chandrayaan 2. The success of Chandrayaan 1 serves as a testament to the dedication and hard work of the scientists and engineers involved in the project, and it has brought India’s space program to the forefront of global space exploration efforts.

Chandrayaan 1
Chandrayaan 1

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ’s)

Based on the above information, answer the following questions in the Comment Box:

What was the goal of Chandrayaan-1?

  1. To study the Mars surface and mineral composition.
  2. To study the Earth’s atmosphere and its composition.
  3. To study the Moon’s surface and mineral composition, as well as to search for evidence of water on the Moon.
  4. To study the composition of the asteroid belt.

When was Chandrayaan-1 launched?

  1. October 22, 2008.
  2. October 22, 2009.
  3. November 8, 2008.
  4. November 8, 2009.

What was the payload of Chandrayaan-1?

  1. An orbiter and a Mars Impact Probe.
  2. An orbiter and a Moon Impact Probe.
  3. An orbiter and a Venus Impact Probe.
  4. An orbiter and a Jupiter Impact Probe.

What were the primary objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission?

  1. To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around Mars using an Indian-made launch vehicle.
  2. To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the Earth using an Indian-made launch vehicle.
  3. To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the Moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle.
  4. To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around Saturn using an Indian-made launch vehicle.

How many scientific instruments were onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter?

  1. 5
  2. 7
  3. 9
  4. 11

What was the name of the instrument onboard the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter that detected the presence of water molecules in the lunar soil?

  1. Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR).
  2. Terrain-mapping camera.
  3. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3).
  4. Moon Impact Probe (MIP).

What was one of the significant milestones for India’s space program achieved by Chandrayaan-1?

  1. The first successful Mars mission.
  2. The first successful Moon mission.
  3. The first successful Venus mission.
  4. The first successful Jupiter mission.

How did the success of Chandrayaan-1 impact India’s space industry?

  1. It established India as a leading player in the global space industry.
  2. It had no impact on India’s space industry.
  3. It led to the shutdown of India’s space industry.
  4. It led to the downsizing of India’s space industry.

What was the launch vehicle of Chandrayaan-1?

  1. GSLV Mk III.
  2. PSLV-C11.
  3. Ariane 5.
  4. Falcon 9.

What were the discoveries made by the Chandrayaan-1 mission?

  1. The mission confirmed the presence of water on the Moon’s surface, detected titanium, confirmed the presence of calcium, and acquired the most accurate measurements of iron, aluminium, and magnesium.
  2. The mission confirmed the presence of water on the Earth’s surface, detected titanium, confirmed the presence of calcium, and acquired the most accurate measurements of iron, aluminium, and magnesium.
  3. The mission confirmed the presence of water on the Mars’ surface, detected titanium, confirmed the presence of calcium, and acquired the most accurate measurements of iron, aluminium, and magnesium.
  4. The mission confirmed the presence of water on the Venus’ surface, detected titanium, confirmed the presence of calcium, and acquired the most accurate measurements of iron, aluminium, and magnesium.

Write your answers in comment box.

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