Chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22,2019 from Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota. Chandrayaan 2 mission is a highly complex mission, which represents a significant technological leap compared to the previous missions of ISRO, which brought together an Orbiter, Lander and Rover with the goal of exploring south pole of the Moon. This is a unique mission which aims at studying not just one area of the Moon but all the areas combining the exosphere, the surface as well as the sub-surface of the moon in a single mission.

Chandrayaan 2

Why did we go to the Moon?

The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 aims for enhancing our understanding of the Moon, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

What are the Scientific Objectives of Chandrayaan 2? Why was the Lunar South Pole Targeted for Exploration?

Moon provides the best linkage to Earth’s early history. It offers an undisturbed historical record of the inner Solar system environment. Though there are a few mature models, further explanations were needed to understand the origin of the Moon. Extensive mapping of lunar surface to study variations in lunar surface were essential to trace back the origin and evolution of the Moon. Evidence for water molecules discovered by Chandrayaan-1, required further studies on the extent of water molecule distribution on the surface, below the surface and in the tenous lunar exosphere to address the origin of water on Moon.

The Lunar South pole is especially interesting because of the lunar surface area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the North Pole. There could be a possibility of presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, South Pole region has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.

Chandrayaan 2

Launcher and the Spacecraft

Chandrayaan 2
Chandrayaan 2

Launcher

The GSLV Mk-III is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated from within the country. The GSLV Mk-III, takes on the mission to carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit! This impressive three-stage vehicle is capable of launching satellites up to 4 tons in weight to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), making it a true marvel of modern engineering.

With its powerful S200 solid rocket boosters, efficient L110 liquid stage, and cutting-edge C25 upper stage, the GSLV Mk-III is a force to be reckoned with. Its sleek and aerodynamic design ensures maximum efficiency and precision, while its advanced technology allows for safe and reliable launches every time.

Orbiter

The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2’s Lander — Vikram. The mighty Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter boasts an impressive weight of 2,379 kg and packs a powerful punch with its electric power generation capability of 1,000 W! But that’s not all – this high-tech wonder is also equipped with state-of-the-art communication systems that allow it to stay connected with both the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu and the Vikram Lander.

Chandraayan 2

And if that wasn’t enough, the precise launch and mission management of this marvel of modern engineering has resulted in a mission life of almost seven years, instead of the planned one year! That’s a testament to the incredible craftsmanship and attention to detail that went into creating this incredible spacecraft.

Chandraayan 2

Vikram Lander

The lander was designed to execute India’s first soft landing on the lunar surface. The Vikram! Weighing in at an impressive 1,471 kg and boasting an electric power generation capability of 650 W, this spacecraft is a true feat of engineering.

And the name? It’s no ordinary moniker. The Lander was named after none other than Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme. With such an illustrious namesake, it’s no wonder that the Vikram is a true trailblazer in the field of space exploration.

Chandrayaan 2

Designed to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days, the Vikram is a marvel of modern engineering that combines power, precision, and cutting-edge technology. And with its advanced design and state-of-the-art components, this incredible spacecraft is poised to take on the challenges of the lunar surface with ease.

Pragyan Rover

Introducing the awe-inspiring Rover of the Chandrayaan 2 mission-The Pragyan! This 6-wheeled AI-powered robotic vehicle is a true wonder of modern engineering, weighing in at a mere 27 kg but packing a powerful punch with its electric power generation capability of 50 W.

Chandraayan 2

But that’s not all that sets the Pragyan apart. Its name itself is steeped in ancient wisdom, with “Pragyan” translating to “wisdom” in Sanskrit. And with its advanced technology and cutting-edge design, this incredible rover is poised to explore the lunar surface like never before, gathering knowledge and information that will help us better understand our place in the universe

Science Experiments of Chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2 has several science payloads to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through detailed study of topography, seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of top soil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, leading to a new understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon.

The Orbiter payloads will conduct remote-sensing observations from a 100 km orbit while the Lander and Rover payloads will perform in-situ measurements near the landing site.

Chandraayan 2
On March 4th, 2022, a rocket booster that was no longer being used hit the surface of the Moon near the Hertzsprung crater, which is located on the far side of the Moon. This created a double crater that is about 28 meters wide. In April 2022, the Terrain Mapping Camera – 2 (TMC-2) onboard the Chandrayaan-2 mission took pictures of the far side of the Moon and was able to identify the impact site. The picture above shows a comparison between images taken before the impact (on February 21st, 2022) and after the impact (on April 3rd, 2022). The yellow arrow indicates the new crater that was formed due to the impact. The TMC-2 has a spatial resolution of 5 meters and the image has been zoomed in four times.

For understanding of the Lunar composition, it is planned to identify the elements and mapping its distribution on the lunar surface both at global and In-situ level. In addition detailed 3 dimensional mapping of the lunar regolith will be done. Measurements on the near surface plasma environment and electron density in the Lunar ionosphere will be studied. Thermo-physical property of the lunar surface and seismic activities will also be measured. Water molecule distribution will be studied using infra red spectroscopy, synthetic aperture radiometry & polarimetry as well as mass spectroscopy techniques.

Key Payloads of Chandrayaan 2

  1. Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer
  2. Elemental composition of the Moon
  3. Imaging IR Spectrometer
  4. Mineralogy mapping and water-ice confirmation
  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar L & S Band
  6. Polar-region mapping and sub-surface water-ice confirmation
  7. Orbiter High Resolution Camera
  8. High-resolution topography mapping
  9. Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment
  10. Thermal conductivity and temperature gradient
  11. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope
  12. In-situ elemental analysis and abundance in the vicinity of landing site

Orbiter Payloads

Terrain Mapping Camera 2 (TMC 2)

TMC 2 is a miniature version of the Terrain Mapping Camera used onboard the Chandrayaan 1 mission. Its primary objective is mapping the lunar surface in the panchromatic spectral band (0.5-0.8 microns) with a high spatial resolution of 5 m and a swath of 20 km from 100 km lunar polar orbit. The data collected by TMC 2 will give us clues about the Moon’s evolution and help us prepare 3D maps of the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS)

CLASS measures the Moon’s X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectra to examine the presence of major elements such as Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Titanium, Iron, and Sodium. The XRF technique will detect these elements by measuring the characteristic X-rays they emit when excited by the Sun’s rays.

Solar X-Ray Monitor (XSM)

XSM observes the X-rays emitted by the Sun and its corona, measures the intensity of solar radiation in these rays, and supports CLASS. The primary objective of this payload is to provide solar X-ray spectrum in the energy range of 1-15 keV. XSM will provide high-energy resolution and high-cadence measurements (full spectrum every second) of solar X-ray spectra as input for analysis of data from CLASS.

Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC)

OHRC provides high-resolution images of the landing site — ensuring the Lander’s safe touchdown by detecting any craters or boulders prior to separation. The images it captures, taken from two different look angles, serve dual purposes. Firstly, they are used to generate DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of the landing site. Secondly, they are used for scientific research, post-lander separation. OHRC’s images will be captured over the course of two orbits, covering an area of 12 km x 3 km with a ground resolution of 0.32 m.

Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS)

IIRS has two primary objectives:

Global mineralogical and volatile mapping of the Moon in the spectral range of ~0.8-5.0 µm for the first time, at the high resolution of ~20 nm

Complete characterisation of water/hydroxyl feature near 3.0 µm for the first time at high spatial (~80 m) and spectral (~20 nm) resolutions

IIRS will also measure the solar radiation reflected off the Moon’s surface in 256 contiguous spectral bands from 100 km lunar orbit.

Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR)

The dual frequency (L and S) SAR will provide enhanced capabilities compared to Chandrayaan 1’s S-band miniSAR in areas such as:

L-band for greater depth of penetration (About 5m — twice that of S-band)

Circular and full polarimetry — with a range of resolution options (2-75 m) and incident angles (9°-35°) — for understanding scattering properties of permanently shadowed regions

The main scientific objectives of this payload are:

  1. High-resolution lunar mapping in the polar regions
  2. Quantitative estimation of water-ice in the polar regions
  3. Estimation of regolith thickness and its distribution

Chandrayaan 2 Atmospheric Compositional Explorer 2 (CHACE 2)

CHACE 2 will continue the CHACE experiment carried out by Chandrayaan 1. It is a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMA) capable of scanning the lunar neutral exosphere in the mass range of 1 to 300 amu with the mass resolution of ~0.5 amu. CHACE 2’s primary objective is to carry out an in-situ study of the composition and distribution of the lunar neutral exosphere and its variability.

Dual Frequency Radio Science (DFRS) experiment

To study the temporal evolution of electron density in the Lunar ionosphere. Two coherent signals at X (8496 MHz), and S (2240 MHz) band are transmitted simultaneously from satellite, and received at ground based deep station network receivers.

Vikram Payloads

Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive Ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)

The lunar ionosphere is a highly dynamic plasma environment. Langmuir probes, such as RAMBHA, have proven to be an effective diagnostic tool to gain information in such conditions. Its primary objective is to measure factors such as:

Ambient electron density/temperature near the lunar surface

Temporal evolution of lunar plasma density for the first time near the surface under varying solar conditions.

Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment (CHaSTE)

ChaSTE measures the vertical temperature gradient and thermal conductivity of the lunar surface. It consists of a thermal probe (sensors and a heater) that is inserted into the lunar regolith down to a depth of ~10 cm. ChaSTE operates in two modes:

Passive mode operation in which continuous in-situ measurements of temperature at different depths are carried out

Active mode operation in which temperature variations in a set period of time, and the regolith’s thermal conductivity under contact, are estimated.

Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)

ILSA is a triple axis, MEMS-based seismometer that can detect minute ground displacement, velocity, or acceleration caused by lunar quakes. Its primary objective is to characterise the seismicity around the landing site. ILSA has been designed to identify acceleration as low as 100 ng /√Hz with a dynamic range of ±0.5 g and a bandwidth of 40 Hz. The dynamic range is met by using two sensors — a coarse-range sensor and a fine-range sensor.

Pragyan Payloads

Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

APXS’ primary objective is to determine the elemental composition of the Moon’s surface near the landing site. It achieves this through X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique, where X-ray or alpha particles are used to excite the surface. APXS uses radioactive Curium (244) metal that emits high-energy, alpha particles — as well as X-rays — enabling both X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Through these techniques, APXS can detect all major rock-forming elements such as Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Silica, Calcium, Titanium, Iron, and some trace elements such as Strontium, Yttrium and Zirconium.

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)

LIBS’ prime objective is to identify and determine the abundance of elements near the landing site. It does this by firing high-powered laser pulses at various locations and analysing the radiation emitted by the decaying plasma.

Chandrayaan 2 UPSC

Base on your reading you can try to answer this questions. Please write your answers in the comment box:

1.When was Chandrayaan 2 launched?

  1. July 22, 2018
  2. July 22, 2019
  3. July 22, 2020
  4. July 22, 2021

2. What was the objective of the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. To study the surface of the Moon only
  2. To explore the North Pole of the Moon
  3. To enhance our understanding of the Moon and stimulate the advancement of technology
  4. To search for extraterrestrial life on the Moon

3. Which of the following is not a part of the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. Orbiter
  2. Lander
  3. Rover
  4. Flyby spacecraft

4. Why was the Lunar South Pole targeted for exploration in the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. Because the North Pole had already been explored in previous missions
  2. Because it is the closest part of the Moon to the Earth
  3. Because it has the largest number of craters on the Moon
  4. Because there could be a possibility of presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it and it contains a fossil record of the early Solar System.

5. What is the name of India’s most powerful launcher to date?

  1. GSLV Mk-IV
  2. PSLV-XL
  3. GSLV Mk-II
  4. GSLV Mk-III

6. What is the weight of the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter?

  1. 1,000 kg
  2. 2,379 kg
  3. 4,000 kg
  4. 650 kg

7. What is the name of the Lander in the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. Vikram
  2. Sarabhai
  3. Pragyan
  4. None of the above

How long was the Vikram Lander designed to function on the lunar surface?

  1. 7 Earth days
  2. 14 Earth days
  3. 28 Earth days
  4. 30 Earth days

9. What is the name of the robotic vehicle used in the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. Pragati
  2. Pragyaan
  3. Pragyat
  4. Pragyashakti

10. What is the purpose of the science payloads carried by the Chandrayaan 2 mission?

  1. To study the origin and evolution of the Moon
  2. To search for extraterrestrial life on the Moon
  3. To study the Martian atmosphere
  4. To search for asteroids near the Moon.

Chandrayaan 2 Images HD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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FAQ

Que: What was Chandrayaan 2 launch date?

Ans: Chandrayaan 2 was launched on July 22,2019.

Que: Where from Chandrayaan 2 was launched?

Ans: Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh

Que: Why did Vikram lander fail?

Ans: On September 6th, during the Chandrayaan 2 mission, the Vikram lander experienced a hard landing on the surface of the moon. This occurred due to an issue with the lander’s braking thrusters. The initial phase of descent went smoothly, from a height of 30 km to 7.4 km above the moon’s surface, during which the lander’s speed slowed from 1,683 meters per second to 146 meters per second. However, during the second phase of descent, the velocity reduction exceeded the intended value. This caused a deviation in the initial conditions at the start of the fine braking phase, which went beyond the designated parameters. As a result, the Vikram lander hard landed on the moon within 500 meters of the intended landing site.

Que: Is Vikram lander alive?

Ans: It is highly probable that Vikram, the Chandrayaan-2 lander, is no longer operational after being exposed to the cold lunar night, which may have caused its instruments to freeze. Since the Indian Space Research Organisation lost contact with Vikram, NASA has tried twice to locate the lander using its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. On both occasions, the LRO captured images of the landing site. However, analysis of these images did not reveal the location of Vikram on the Moon’s surface. Vikram attempted to land in the Moon’s south polar region, which is characterized by numerous craters. Parts of these craters are permanently in shadow, making the region an especially challenging area for lunar exploration.

Que:  Which countries have made a soft landing on the moon?

Ans: During the year 1966, the USSR made significant strides in lunar exploration, accomplishing the first soft landings on the Moon and capturing the first images from its surface through the Luna 9 and Luna 13 missions. The United States then achieved five uncrewed soft landings with their Surveyor missions. On September 24, 1970, the Soviet Union achieved another milestone by conducting the first uncrewed return of a lunar soil sample using the Luna 16 probe. These achievements were significant contributions to our understanding of the Moon and its characteristics.

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