Chandrayaan 3

Chandrayaan 3 is an Indian space mission that is going to the moon. It will show us how to safely land and move around on the moon’s surface using a special vehicle called a “rover.”

Chandrayaan 3

The mission has two parts: a “lander” and a “rover.” The lander is a special machine that will land on the moon, and the rover is a vehicle that can move around on the moon’s surface.

Chandrayaan 3 will be launched into space by a big rocket called the LVM3 from Sriharikota. When it reaches the moon, a special part of the mission called the “propulsion module” will take the lander and rover to an orbit around the moon that is about 100 kilometers above its surface.

The propulsion module has a special tool called SHAPE on board. This tool will help scientists study the Earth from the moon’s orbit. It will take measurements of how light behaves when it hits the Earth’s atmosphere, which will help us learn more about our planet.

Chandrayaan 3

The lander part of the mission has some special tools on board. One tool called Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment i.e. “ChaSTE” which will measure the temperature and how well heat moves through the moon’s surface. Another tool called Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity i.e. “ILSA” which will measure vibrations in the moon’s crust  around the landing site.

There is also a tool called Langmuir Probe i.e. “LP” which will help scientists understand how charged particles move around the moon by measuring the plasma density and its changes.

NASA has also provided a special tool called “Passive Laser Retroreflector Array” which will help scientists measure the distance between the Earth and the moon using lasers.

The rover part of the mission has two special tools on board. One is called the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and the other is called the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS). These tools will help scientists figure out what elements are present near the landing site on the moon.

Chandrayaan 3 Payloads

  1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)
  2. Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE)
  3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)
  4. Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) Rover:
  5. Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)
  6. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Propulsion Module:
  7. Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE)

Lander Payloads: 

  1. Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature;
  2. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) for measuring the seismicity around the landing site;
  3. Langmuir Probe (LP) to estimate the plasma density and its variations.
  4. A passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA is accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.

Rover Payloads: 

  1. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and
  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) for deriving the elemental composition in the vicinity of landing site.

Chandrayaan 3 is a special mission to learn how to travel to other planets. It has three parts: a Lander module, a Propulsion module, and a Rover.

The Lander module will land softly on the moon’s surface and will let the Rover out to drive around and study the moon’s surface.

Both the Lander and the Rover have special tools on board to help scientists do experiments and learn new things about the moon.

Chandrayaan 3
Chandrayaan 3 Propulsion Module

The Propulsion module’s job is to take the Lander to the moon and then let it go. The Propulsion module also has a special tool on board to do an experiment after it separates from the Lander.

The rocket that will be used for the mission is called GSLV-Mk3. It will put all three parts of the mission into space and into an orbit that goes around the Earth and the moon.

Objectives of Chandrayaan 3

The mission objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are:

  1. To demonstrate Safe and Soft Landing on Lunar Surface
  2. To demonstrate Rover roving on the moon and
  3. To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.

To achieve the mission objectives, several advanced technologies are present in Lander such as,

  1. Altimeters: Laser & RF based Altimeters
  2. Velocimeters: Laser Doppler Velocimeter & Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera
  3. Inertial Measurement: Laser Gyro based Inertial referencing and Accelerometer package
  4. Propulsion System: 800N Throttleable Liquid Engines, 58N attitude thrusters & Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
  5. Navigation, Guidance & Control (NGC): Powered Descent Trajectory design and associate software elements
  6. Hazard Detection and Avoidance: Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera and Processing Algorithm
  7. Landing Leg Mechanism.

To demonstrate the above said advanced technologies in earth condition, several Lander special tests have been planned and carried out successfully viz.

  1. Integrated Cold Test – For the demonstration of Integrated Sensors & Navigation performance test using helicopter as test platform
  2. Integrated Hot test – For the demonstration of closed loop performance test with sensors, actuators and NGC using Tower crane as test platform
  3. Lander Leg mechanism performance test on a lunar simulant test bed simulating different touch down conditions.
Chandrayaan 3
Chandrayaan 3 Rover

Chandrayaan 3 is a mission to study the moon and do scientific experiments. The mission has three main goals: to safely land on the moon, to drive a Rover around on the moon, and to do experiments on the moon’s surface.

Chandrayaan-3
Chandrayaan 3 Lander

To do this, the mission has a special Lander module with lots of advanced technology. This includes special equipment to measure things like how high up the Lander is and how fast it’s going. The Lander also has engines to control its movements and cameras to help it avoid any obstacles on the moon’s surface.

Before sending the Lander to the moon, scientists tested it here on Earth. They did two tests, one to make sure the Lander works in cold conditions and another to make sure it works in hot conditions. They also tested the legs of the Lander on a special bed that simulates what it will be like when the Lander lands on the moon.

The Overall Specifications for Chandrayaan 3

S. No. Parameter Specifications
1. Mission Life (Lander & Rover) One lunar day (~14 Earth days)
2. Landing Site (Prime) 4 km x 2.4 km 69.367621 S, 32.348126 E
3. Science Payloads Lander:

  1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)
  2. Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE)
  3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)
  4. Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) Rover:
  5. Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)
  6. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Propulsion Module:
  7. Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE)
4. Two Module Configuration
  1. Propulsion Module (Carries Lander from launch injection to Lunar orbit)
  2. Lander Module (Rover is accommodated inside the Lander)
5. Mass
  1. Propulsion Module: 2148 kg
  2. Lander Module: 1752 kg including Rover of 26 kg
  3. Total: 3900 kg
6. Power generation
  1. Propulsion Module: 758 W
  2. Lander Module: 738W, WS with Bias
  3. Rover: 50W
7. Communication
  1. Propulsion Module: Communicates with IDSN
  2. Lander Module: Communicates with IDSN and Rover. Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter is also planned for contingency link.
  3. Rover: Communicates only with Lander.
8. Lander Sensors
  1. Laser Inertial Referencing and Accelerometer Package (LIRAP)
  2. Ka-Band Altimeter (KaRA)
  3. Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC)
  4. LHDAC (Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera)
  5. Laser Altimeter (LASA)
  6. Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)
  7. Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC)
  8. Micro Star sensor
  9. Inclinometer & Touchdown sensors
9. Lander Actuators Reaction wheels – 4 nos (10 Nms & 0.1 Nm)
10. Lander Propulsion System Bi-Propellant Propulsion System (MMH + MON3), 4 nos. of 800 N Throttleable engines & 8 nos. of 58 N; Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
11. Lander Mechanisms
  1. Lander leg
  2. Rover Ramp (Primary & Secondary)
  3. Rover
  4. ILSA, Rambha & Chaste Payloads
  5. Umbilical connector Protection Mechanism,
  6. X- Band Antenna
12. Lander Touchdown specifications
  1. Vertical velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec
  2. Horizontal velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec
  3. Slope: ≤ 120

 

The Objectives of Scientific Payloads Planned on Chandrayaan 3 Lander Module and Rover:

S. No Lander Payloads Objectives
1. Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA) Langmuir probe (LP) To measure the near surface plasma (ions and electrons) density and its changes with time
2. Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE) To carry out the measurements of thermal properties of lunar surface near polar region.
3. Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) To measure seismicity around the landing site and delineating the structure of the lunar crust and mantle.
4. LASER Retroreflector Array (LRA) It is a passive experiment to understand the dynamics of Moon system.

 

S. No Rover Payloads Objectives
1. LASER Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis & To derive the chemical Composition and infer mineralogical composition to further our understanding of Lunar-surface.
2. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) To determine the elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca,Ti, Fe) of Lunar soil and rocks around the lunar landing site.

 

S. No Propulsion Module Payload Objectives
1. Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) Future discoveries of smaller planets in reflected light would allow us to probe into variety of Exo-planets which would qualify for habitability (or for presence of life).

 

Expected Launch date of Chandrayaan 3

Though the date is yet to be finalised but it is expected that the Chandrayaan 3 will be launched in July, 2023.

Launch Vehicle for Chandrayaan 3 

The rocket that will be used for the mission is called GSLV-Mk3.

Chandrayaan 3

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Chandrayaan 3 UPSC

Based on the above information, choose the correct answer and give answers in the comment box:

What is the main objective of Chandrayaan 3?

a) To develop and demonstrate new technologies required for interplanetary missions

b) To study the Earth’s atmosphere

c) To explore the Mars planet

d) To study the asteroids

 

What is the expected mission life of the Lander and Rover of Chandrayaan 3?

a) 28 Earth days

b) 14 Earth days

c) 30 Earth days

d) 60 Earth days

 

What are the two modules of Chandrayaan 3?

a) Lander and Orbiter

b) Lander and Rover

c) Rover and Orbiter

d) Rover and Flyby spacecraft

 

What is the landing site of the Lander on the Moon’s surface?

a) 69.367621 N, 32.348126 E

b) 32.348126 N, 69.367621 E

c) 69.367621 S, 32.348126 E

d) 32.348126 S, 69.367621 E

 

Which instrument is carried by the Rover to analyze the chemical composition of the lunar surface?

a) Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)

b) Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment (ChaSTE)

c) Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)

d) Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)

 

How many reaction wheels are present in the Lander as actuators?

a) 4

b) 8

c) 12

d) 16

 

Which is the launcher identified for Chandrayaan-3?

a) GSLV-Mk2

b) PSLV-C44

c) GSLV-Mk3

d) GSLV-F10

 

What is the total mass of the integrated module of Chandrayaan-3?

a) 2148 kg

b) 1752 kg

c) 3900 kg

d) 758 W

 

Which communication system is used by the Lander module to communicate with IDSN and the Rover?

a) X-Band Antenna

b) Ka-Band Altimeter

c) Laser Altimeter

d) Micro Star sensor

 

What are the specifications for the Lander touchdown on the lunar surface?

a) Vertical velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec; Horizontal velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec; Slope: ≤ 120

b) Vertical velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec; Horizontal velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec; Slope: ≤ 120

c) Vertical velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec; Horizontal velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec; Slope: ≤ 90

d) Vertical velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / sec; Horizontal velocity: ≤ 2 m / sec; Slope: ≤ 90

 

FAQ

Q: Is Chandrayaan 3 ready?

A: The Chandrayaan 3 craft is fully ready.

Q: Is ISRO working on Chandrayaan 3?

A: Yes

Q. What will Chandrayaan 3 do?
A. Chandrayaan 3 is an Indian space mission that is going to the moon. It will show us how to safely land and move around on the moon’s surface using a special vehicle called a “rover.”

Q. When is Chandrayaan 3 will launch?

A. The launch of the LVM3-M4/Chandrayaan-3 mission is scheduled for July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST. The launch will take place from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota, India. The SDSC, with its state-of-the-art launch facilities, has been the primary spaceport for ISRO’s missions.
Also See ISRO.

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