Gaganyaan

HSFC for Gaganyaan Program

The Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC) is a group that is responsible for leading ISRO’s Gaganyaan program. They make sure that everyone involved in the program is working together and focusing on the mission. HSFC is also responsible for making sure that all the new technologies used in the program are safe and reliable, especially those that help astronauts stay alive and well in space. These technologies will be important for future missions to the Moon, Mars, and other places in space.

ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organization, has been a key player in India’s space exploration endeavours for several decades. Its latest ambition is to send Indian astronauts into space, and to achieve this goal, it has established the Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC) as the lead centre for all human space flight activities.

HSFC’s primary mandate is to oversee the Gaganyaan program, a manned space mission that seeks to send three Indian astronauts into space for a period of up to seven days. The program is set to take place in 2022-2023, and HSFC coordinates all the activities undertaken by other ISRO centres, research labs in India, academia, and industries towards achieving its objectives.

As the lead centre for human space flight activities, HSFC adheres to high standards of reliability and human safety. It conducts research and development activities in areas critical for future sustained human space flight activities, such as life support systems, Human Factors Engineering, Bioastronautics, Crew training, and Human rating & certification.

HSFC’s research in life support systems aims to develop technologies that enable humans to survive in space for extended periods. These include atmospheric control systems, water and waste management systems, and food and nutrition systems. Protective clothing and equipment that shield astronauts from radiation and other space hazards are also under development.

Human Factors Engineering is another crucial area of HSFC’s research. The center focuses on designing systems that optimize human performance by understanding how humans interact with space technology. It involves developing user-friendly interfaces, ergonomic workstations, and systems that minimize the risk of human error.

Bioastronautics is the study of the biological effects of spaceflight on living organisms. HSFC’s research in this area aims to understand how spaceflight affects human physiology, psychology, and behavior. The center is working on developing countermeasures to mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight, such as muscle and bone loss, cardiovascular and immune system dysfunction, and psychological stress.

Crew training is a crucial aspect of HSFC’s work. The center develops and delivers training programs for the astronauts participating in the Gaganyaan mission, covering spacecraft systems, emergency procedures, physiological adaptation, and psychological stress management.

Finally, HSFC is developing human rating and certification systems for spaceflight hardware. These systems ensure that spaceflight hardware is safe and reliable for human use by establishing standards and protocols for testing and certifying such hardware.

HSFC plays a crucial role in ISRO’s efforts to send Indian astronauts into space. Its research and development activities in life support systems, Human Factors Engineering, Bioastronautics, Crew training, and Human rating & certification are critical for the success of the Gaganyaan program and future human spaceflight missions. India’s space exploration journey has achieved a significant milestone through HSFC’s work, positioning the country as a key player in the global space race.

Gaganyaan

The Gaganyaan project is about sending a crew of three people into space for a three-day mission, 400 Kilometers above the earth’s surface, and bringing them back to land safely in the Indian sea.

The project will be accomplished by using the knowledge and expertise of Indian industries, research institutions, and international technology. To prepare for the Gaganyaan mission, several important technologies need to be developed, such as a launch vehicle that can safely carry the crew to space, a life support system to provide a comfortable environment for the crew in space, an emergency escape plan for the crew, and training and recovery methods for the crew.

Before the actual human space flight, several demonstration missions will take place to test and prepare the technologies. These missions include the Integrated Air Drop Test, Pad Abort Test, and Test Vehicle flights. All systems will be tested and proven safe and reliable in unmanned missions before the manned mission takes place.

Human Rated LVM3 – HLVM3: The Launch Vehicle for Gaganyaan

The full form of HLVM3 is Human Rated LVM3. For the Gaganyaan mission, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has chosen a heavy lift launcher that is already well-proven and reliable. This launcher has three stages – solid, liquid, and cryogenic. The ISRO has re-configured all the systems in this launcher to meet the requirements for human rating, and it is now called the Human Rated LVM3. The Human Rated LVM3 is powerful enough to launch the Orbital Module to a Low Earth Orbit of 400 km.

Gaganyaan

The Human Rated LVM3 also has a Crew Escape System (CES). The CES is powered by a set of solid motors that burn quickly and powerfully. This system is designed to keep the Crew Module and the crew safe in case of any emergency that happens either at the launch pad or during the ascent phase. It will quickly move the Crew Module and crew away from danger to a safe distance.

Orbital Module

The Orbital Module (OM) that will orbit Earth consists of two parts: the Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM). The OM has advanced avionics systems with enough backup plans to ensure human safety.

Gaganyaan

The CM is where the crew will live and work. It is built with two walls – one pressurized metallic inner structure and an outer structure with a Thermal Protection System (TPS). Inside the CM, there are interfaces for the crew, systems to support life in space, avionics, and ways to slow down or decelerate the module. The CM is also designed to re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere and land safely.

The SM is an unpressurized structure that supports the CM while it is in orbit. It has systems for temperature control, propulsion, power, avionics, and mechanisms to deploy equipment.

New Technologies Being Developed For Gaganyaan

The safety of the crew is the most important consideration in the Gaganyaan mission. To make sure the crew is safe, new technologies are being developed and put into practice. These technologies include both engineering systems and systems that are designed with human needs in mind.

Crew Training for Gaganyaan

In Bengaluru, there is a training facility for astronauts. It provides different kinds of training, including classroom lessons, fitness training, simulator training, and learning how to wear the flight suit. The training covers different subjects, such as the Gaganyaan Flight Systems, how to work in microgravity during parabolic flights, aero-medical training, recovery and survival training, flight procedures, and practicing on Crew Training Simulators. The astronauts also receive aero-medical training, periodic flying practice, and yoga training as part of their overall preparation.

Astronaut Training Facility

Gaganyaan

Milestones Achieved So Far

Gaganyaan

 

Gaganyaan

Test Vehicle for Characterisation of Crew Escape System ready at SDSC

Gaganyaan

Major Milestones Planned

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Gaganyaan UPSC

Based on the aforesaid information, answer the following questions and write your answers in the comment box:

 

What is the primary goal of the Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC)?

a) To develop new technologies for future space missions

b) To train astronauts for future space missions

c) To lead ISRO’s Gaganyaan program

d) To develop launch vehicles for future space missions

 

What is the Gaganyaan program?

a) A program to send Indian astronauts to the Moon

b) A program to send Indian astronauts into space

c) A program to launch satellites into space

d) A program to study the effects of space on living organisms

 

How long is the Gaganyaan mission set to last?

a) 3 days

b) 7 days

c) 14 days

d) 21 days

 

What is the purpose of the Crew Escape System (CES)?

a) To bring the crew back to earth safely

b) To launch the Orbital Module to a Low Earth Orbit

c) To keep the crew and Crew Module safe in case of an emergency

d) To ensure human safety during launch

 

What is the Orbital Module (OM) made up of?

a) The Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM)

b) The Launch Vehicle for Gaganyaan (HLVM3)

c) Life support systems, Human Factors Engineering, Bioastronautics, Crew training, and Human rating & certification

d) User-friendly interfaces, ergonomic workstations, and systems that minimize the risk of human error

 

What is the purpose of HSFC’s research in life support systems?

a) To understand how spaceflight affects human physiology, psychology, and behaviour

b) To develop technologies that enable humans to survive in space for extended periods

c) To develop human rating and certification systems for spaceflight hardware

d) To design systems that optimize human performance

 

What is Human Factors Engineering?

a) The study of the biological effects of spaceflight on living organisms

b) The development of protective clothing and equipment for astronauts

c) The designing of systems that optimize human performance

d) The study of how humans interact with space technology

 

What is Bioastronautics?

a) The study of how humans interact with space technology

b) The study of the biological effects of spaceflight on living organisms

c) The development of countermeasures to mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight

d) The study of crew training for space missions

 

What is the purpose of crew training for the Gaganyaan mission?

a) To test and prepare the technologies for the Gaganyaan mission

b) To develop user-friendly interfaces and ergonomic workstations

c) To cover spacecraft systems, emergency procedures, physiological adaptation, and psychological stress management

d) To establish standards and protocols for testing and certifying spaceflight hardware

 

What is the HLVM3?

a) The Crew Escape System (CES)

b) The Orbital Module (OM)

c) The Launch Vehicle for Gaganyaan

d) The Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC)