The full form of ISRO is Indian Space Research Organisation which is the space agency of India. ISRO is a major constituent of the Department of Space (DOS), Government of India. The organisation is involved in Science, Engineering and Technology to harvest the benefits of outer space for India and the mankind. The department executes the Indian Space Programme mainly through various Centres or units within ISRO.

ISRO was previously the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR), set up by the Government of India in 1962, as planned by Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai. Thereafter, the ISRO was formed on August 15, 1969 and superseded INCOSPAR with an expanded role to harness space technology for India. Then, DOS was set up and ISRO was brought under DOS in 1972.

The major objective of ISRO/DOS is the development and application of space technology for various national needs. To fulfil this objective, ISRO has established major space systems for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services; resources monitoring and management; space-based navigation services. ISRO has developed satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and GSLV, to place the satellites in the required orbits.

Alongside its technological advancement, ISRO contributes to science and science education in the country. Various dedicated research centres and autonomous institutions for remote sensing, astronomy and astrophysics, atmospheric sciences and space sciences in general function under the aegis of Department of Space (DOS). ISRO’s own Lunar i.e. Chandrayaan and interplanetary missions, such as Mangalyaan, along with other scientific projects encourage and promote science education, apart from providing valuable data to the scientific community which in turn enriches science.


Genesis of ISRO

The space research activities were initiated in our country during the early 1960’s, when applications using satellites were in experimental stages even in the United States. With the live transmission of Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American Satellite ‘Syncom-3’ demonstrating the power of communication satellites, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founding father of Indian space programme, quickly recognized the benefits of space technologies for India.


Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai

Dr. Sarabhai was convinced and envisioned that the resources in space have the potential to address the real problems of man and society. As Director, Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) located in Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai convened an army of able and brilliant scientists, anthropologists, communicators and social scientists from all corners of the country to spearhead the Indian space programme.

To spearhead the space research activities, Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up in 1962 under the Department of Atomic Energy. Subsequently, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established in August 1969, in place of INCOSPAR. The Government of India constituted the Space Commission and established Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972 and brought ISRO under DOS in September 1972.

Since inception, the Indian space programme has been orchestrated well and had three distinct elements such as, satellites for communication and remote sensing, the space transportation system and application programmes. In 1967, the first ‘Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES)’ located in Ahmedabad was operationalized, which also doubled as a training centre for the Indian as well as International scientists and engineers.

To establish that a satellite system can contribute to the national development, ISRO was clear that it need not wait for its own satellites to begin application development, while foreign satellites could be used in the initial stages. However, before trying out a full-fledged satellite system, some controlled experiment to prove the efficacy of television medium for national development was found necessary. Accordingly, a TV programme on agricultural information to farmers ‘KrishiDarshan’ was started, which received good response.

The next logical step was the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), hailed as ‘the largest sociological experiment in the world’ during 1975-76. This experiment benefited around 200,000 people, covering 2400 villages of six states and transmitted development oriented programmes using the American Technology Satellite (ATS-6). The credit of training 50,000 science teachers primary schools in one year goes to SITE.

SITE was followed by the Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project (STEP), a joint project of ISRO-and Post and Telegraphs Department (P&T) using the Franco-German Symphonie satellite during 1977-79. Conceived as a sequel to SITE which focused on Television, STEP was for telecommunication experiments. STEP was aimed to provide a system test of using geosynchronous satellites for domestic communications, enhance capabilities and experience in the design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of various ground segment facilities and build up requisite indigenous competence for the proposed operational domestic satellite system, INSAT, for the country.

St. Mary Magdelene Church in the fishing village of Thumba in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala served as the main office for scientists in the early stages of India’s space programme. It’s preserved in its full glory even today and it houses an impressive space museum.

SEIT was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP)’, which worked as a field laboratory for need-based and locale specific programme transmission in the Kheda district of Gujarat State. KCP was awarded the UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award for rural communication efficiency in the 1984.

During this period, the first Indian spacecraft ‘Aryabhata’ was developed and was launched using a Soviet Launcher. Another major landmark was the development of the first launch vehicle SLV-3 with a capability to place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO (Low Earth Orbit) ), which had its first successful flight in 1980. Through the SLV-3 programme, competence was built up for the overall vehicle design, mission design, material, hardware fabrication, solid propulsion technology, control power plants, avionics, vehicle integration checkout and launch operations. Development of mult-istage rocket systems with appropriate control and guidance systems to orbit a satellite was a major landmark in our space programme.

In the experimental phase during 80’s, end-to-end capability demonstration was done in the design, development and in-orbit management of space systems together with the associated ground systems for the users. Bhaskara-I & II missions were pioneering steps in the remote sensing area whereas ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ became the forerunner for future communication satellite system. Development of the complex Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), also demonstrated newer technologies like use of strap-on, bulbous heat shield, closed loop guidance and digital autopilot. This paved the way for learning many nuances of launch vehicle design for complex missions, leading the way for realisation of operational launch vehicles such as PSLV and GSLV.
During the operational phase in 90’s, major space infrastructure was created under two broad classes: one for the communication, broadcasting and meteorology through a multi-purpose Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), and the other for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) system. The development and operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and development of Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) were significant achievements during this phase.

ISRO Activities and Centers Across India

ISRO has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Its activities are spread across various centres and units. Launch Vehicles are built at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerela; Satellites are designed and developed at U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC), Bengalure; Integration and launching of satellites and launch vehicles are carried out from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota, Andhra Pradaesh; Development of liquid stages including cryogenic stage is carried out at Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Valiamala, Kerela & Bengaluru, Karnataka; Sensors for Communication and Remote Sensing satellites and application aspects of the space technology are taken up at Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, Gujarat and Remote Sensing satellite data reception processing and dissemination is entrusted to National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad, Telangana.

The activities of ISRO are guided by its Chairman, who would also be the Secretary of DOS and Chairman of Space Commission – the apex body that formulates the policies and overseas the implementation of the Indian Space Programme.

Vision of ISRO

The vision of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to effectively use space technology for the development of the country, while also conducting research in space science and exploring other planets. This involves utilizing the potential of space technology to its fullest, maintaining its growth and using it to aid the growth of the nation. ISRO has been working towards this vision through various activities and centres spread across India, including designing and developing satellites, building launch vehicles, developing liquid stages, and more. Through these efforts, ISRO aims to contribute to the development of the country while also making progress in space exploration and research.

The first area of focus is designing and developing launch vehicles and related technologies. These technologies are essential for providing access to space. This involves creating the tools and equipment needed to launch spacecraft, such as rockets and space shuttles. It also includes developing technologies that will enable spacecraft to travel safely and efficiently through space.

The second area of focus is designing and developing satellites and related technologies. Satellites are used for earth observation, communication, navigation, meteorology, and space science. This involves creating satellites that can be used to study the earth’s surface, monitor weather patterns, and provide communication services to people around the world. It also includes developing technologies that will enable spacecraft to navigate through space and communicate with each other.

The third area of focus is communication programs. These programs are designed to meet the needs of telecommunication, television broadcasting, and developmental applications. This involves creating communication technologies that will enable people to communicate with each other and access information from anywhere in the world.


The fourth area of focus is satellite-based remote sensing programs. These programs are designed for managing natural resources and monitoring the environment using space-based imagery. This involves creating technologies that will enable scientists to study the earth’s surface and monitor changes over time.

The fifth area of focus is space-based navigation systems. These systems are designed to help people navigate through space. This involves creating technologies that will enable spacecraft to navigate through space and communicate with each other.

The sixth area of focus is space-based applications for societal development. These applications are designed to improve people’s lives and promote societal development. This involves creating technologies that can be used for disaster management, health care, and education.

The seventh area of focus is research and development in space science and planetary exploration. This involves conducting research and developing technologies that will enable humans to explore and understand the universe.

Finally, the eighth area of focus is promoting and authorizing private firms to play a key role in the global space market. This involves creating opportunities for private companies to invest in space technologies and participate in the space industry.

Objectives of ISRO

The Indian space programme involves the operation of various types of rockets, including the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), and Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV). These rockets are used to launch various types of spacecraft, such as communication satellites, earth observation satellites, navigation satellites, and satellites for space science and planetary exploration.

In addition to launching spacecraft, the Indian space programme is also involved in the design, development, and realization of these satellites. This includes developing new space transportation solutions, designing and building communication satellites, earth observation satellites, and navigation satellite systems. The programme also focuses on using space-based systems for societal applications, such as earth observation applications.

The Indian space programme also emphasizes the importance of advanced technologies and newer initiatives, as well as training and capacity building for individuals interested in space research. The programme promotes space technology and infrastructure/facility development for space research and encourages international cooperation.

The commercial utilization of products and services emanating from the Indian space programme is also an important aspect of the programme, and the promotion and authorization of Indian private firms in the space sector is encouraged. Overall, the Indian space programme is a comprehensive initiative that focuses on various aspects of space research, technology, and innovation.

ISRO Clients

  • User Ministries/Departments of the Central Government
  • Remote Sensing Agencies in State Governments and Union Territories.
  • Quasi Government Organisations, NGOs and the Private Sector for developmental purposes through satellite imaging.
  • Educational institutions in promotion of research and development in space science and technology.
  • International government and private firms seeking the services such as launch service, satellite realisation service, launch support service, etc.

ISRO Activities

The Department of Space has evolved the following programmes with the objective of promoting & developing application of space science and space technology:

  • Launch Vehicle programme having indigenous capability for launching the satellites.
  • Programme for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, development of education etc.
  • Remote Sensing Programme for application of satellite imagery for various developmental purposes.
  • NavIC system for satellite based navigation
  • Research and Development in Space Sciences and Technology for serving the end of applying them for national development.
  • International co-operation for mutual benefit and disaster management
  • Capacity building for developing and harnessing the Space technologies
  • Promotion and authorisation of private players in Space sector
  • Providing know-how and training at national and international levels

Services Provided by The Department of Space

  • Provide national space infrastructure for the telecommunication needs of the country.
  • Provide satellite services required for weather forecasting, monitoring etc.
  • Provide satellite imagery required for the developmental and security needs of the country.
  • Provide satellite imagery and specific products and services required for application of space science and technology for developmental purposes to the Central Government, State Governments, Quasi-Governmental Organisations, NGOs and the private sector.
  • Provide space-based navigation system
  • Provide launch services, satellite or sub-systems, launch support, mission support, ground system support and disaster management
  • Transfer of technologies for technological, industrial and societal applications
  • Promote Research & Development in space sciences and technology.

The Department of Space is committed to

While making the above-mentioned objectives operational, Department of Space will

  • Establish and maintain national space infrastructure for telecommunication, broadcasting and navigation needs of the country
  • Provide satellite service including imagery for weather forecasting, disaster management, natural resources survey and monitoring of the environment
  • Provide its products and services in a prompt, efficient and transparent manner to all the users/clients
  • Promote and authorise private firms to play their role in Space sector, globally

Major Missions of ISRO


Chandrayaan-1 was a mission to explore the Moon, launched by ISRO in October 2008. It was the first spacecraft in the Chandrayaan program and consisted of a lunar orbiter and an impactor. The spacecraft was sent to the Moon using a rocket from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Chandrayaan-1 was a big accomplishment for India’s space program because it used technology that was developed by India. The spacecraft operated for about 10 months, until August 2009. On November 8, 2008, Chandrayaan-1 was successfully inserted into lunar orbit, where it collected data and images that helped scientists learn more about the Moon.


Chandrayaan-2 is a space mission of the ISRO to explore the Moon. It’s the second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1 and it includes a lunar orbiter, a lander, and a rover called Pragyan. The goal of this mission is to gather information on the composition of the Moon’s surface and to locate and study the abundance of water on the Moon.

The spacecraft was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh on 22 July 2019, using a LVM3-M1 rocket. It reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019, and the lander, named Vikram, was planned to land in the Moon’s south polar region on 6 September 2019. The mission was scheduled to last for one lunar day, which is about two Earth weeks.

Vikram Lander

Unfortunately, the lander crashed while trying to land due to a software glitch, as reported by ISRO. In 2023, ISRO will try again with Chandrayaan-3 to land on the Moon’s surface and conduct scientific experiments.


Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2 to demonstrate end-to-end capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface. It consists of Lander and Rover configuration. It will be launched by LVM3 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The propulsion module will carry the lander and rover configuration till 100 km lunar orbit. The propulsion module has Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) payload to study the spectral and Polari metric measurements of Earth from the lunar orbit.



The Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Mangalyaan, is India’s first mission to explore planet Mars. It was sent to Mars aboard the PSLV-C25 rocket on November 05, 2013. ISRO became the fourth space agency to successfully send a spacecraft to orbit Mars. Even though the mission was designed to last for only six months, the Mars Orbiter Mission exceeded expectations by continuing to operate for seven years in its orbit around Mars. As of September 24, 2021.




The Gaganyaan project is India’s ambitious plan to showcase its capability to launch humans into space. The mission will involve a crew of three members who will be sent to orbit 400 kilometers above the earth’s surface for a mission lasting three days. After their successful mission, they will be brought back safely to earth and will land in the Indian sea waters.

This mission is a giant leap for India in the field of space exploration and is a source of great pride for the country. The project showcases India’s advancements in space technology and is a testament to the hard work and dedication of the scientists and engineers behind it. It’s an exciting time for India as it embarks on this historic journey towards human spaceflight.



The Indian Space and Research Organization (ISRO) has announced its plan to launch a spacecraft to explore Venus. The spacecraft, named Shukrayaan-1, was expected to be launched in December, 2024, but now it is having been postponed to 2031.


The Indian Space Policy 2023

In recent times, India has been making significant strides in the space industry. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been at the forefront of space exploration and research in India, and its accomplishments have put the country in the league of leading space-faring nations.

Recently, the Indian government approved the Indian Space Policy 2023, which aims to strengthen India’s position in the global space arena. The policy is focused on achieving self-reliance, enhancing space technology capabilities, and promoting international cooperation.

The policy sets out a roadmap for the development of India’s space industry in the coming years. It includes increasing the number of launches, developing new technologies and systems, expanding the use of space-based services, and promoting space education and research.

One of the key objectives of the Indian Space Policy 2023 is to enhance India’s space technology capabilities. To achieve this, the policy outlines plans to develop advanced satellite systems, launch vehicles, and other space technologies. It also aims to strengthen the country’s space infrastructure by building new ground stations, tracking facilities, and data centers.

The policy also focuses on promoting space-based services in areas such as communication, navigation, and remote sensing. It seeks to encourage the development of applications and services that can improve the lives of people in areas such as agriculture, disaster management, and healthcare.

Another important aspect of the Indian Space Policy 2023 is its emphasis on international cooperation. The policy aims to enhance India’s collaboration with other space-faring nations, including sharing expertise and resources. It also aims to promote the development of space-related industries in India, including the private sector.

The Indian Space Policy 2023 also highlights the importance of space education and research. The policy encourages the establishment of new academic and research institutions focused on space sciences and technology. It also aims to promote awareness and interest in space-related activities among young people.

In conclusion, the Indian Space Policy 2023 is a significant step towards enhancing India’s capabilities in the space industry. The policy’s focus on self-reliance, technology development, international cooperation, and education and research is expected to propel India towards becoming a leading space-faring nation. With its ambitious goals and roadmap for development, the Indian Space Policy 2023 has the potential to transform India’s space industry and contribute to the nation’s overall growth and development.

ISRO Chairmans

  1. Vikram A Sarabhai Tenure: 1963-1971
  2. Prof M G K Menon Tenure: Jan – Sept 1972
  3. Prof Satish Dhawan Tenure: 1972-1984
  4. Prof U R Rao Tenure: 1984-1994
  5. Dr K Kasturirangan Tenure: 1994-2003
  6. Dr G Madhavan Nair Tenure: 2003-2009
  7. Dr K Radhakrishnan Tenure: 2009-2015
  8. Shri AS Kiran Kumar Tenure: 2015-2018
  9. K. Sivan Tenure: 2018-2022
  10. Shri S. Somanath: 2022 – Till date

ISRO Recruitment : ISRO Career

DOS offers the career opportunities in various fields of specialization and qualifications. Some of the major job opportunities are listed below. This list indicates the opportunities provided so far. Opportunities may get opened for other disciplines as required in future. Please keep visiting this page.

Scientific and Technical Category:

  • Scientist/Engineer posts

    • For graduates, post graduates, doctorates. (Doctorates and post graduates may read this also)
    • In the fields of Electronics, Mechanical, Computer Science, Electrical, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, etc.
    • The recruitment done through ISRO Centralised Recruitment Board (ICRB). Current opportunities
  • Technical Assistant/Scientific Assistant posts

    • For Diploma/B Sc or equivalent degree
    • In various specializations.
    • The recruitment done by various Centre/Unit/Autonomous Bodies. Current opportunities
  • Technician/Draughtsman posts

    • For candidates with education qualification of SSLC/SSC/MATRIC + ITI/NTC/NAC.
    • The recruitment done by various Centre/Unit/Autonomous Body. Current opportunities
    • The recruitment done through ISRO Centralised Recruitment Board (ICRB). Current opportunities

Administrative Category:

  • Posts: Administrative Officer, Accounts Officer, Purchase & Stores Officer, Assistants, Junior Personnel Assistants, etc.

Procedure, in General:

There will be an initial screening based on the academic performance, and other parameters given in the on-line applications and only those screened-in candidates shall be called for written test/interview as per ISRO Recruitment procedures.


Que: ISRO Chairman 2022?

Ans: Shri S. Somanath

Que: ISRO Headquarter?

Ans: Bangluru, Karnataka

Que: PSLV full form?

Ans : Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

Que: GSLV full form?

Ans: Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)

Que: Difference between PSLV and GSLV

Ans: The primary contrast between PSLV and GSLV is that PSLV utilizes four stages that switch between liquid and solid fuels, while GSLV employs three stages with only the initial stage being powered by solid fuel.

Que:  Chandrayaan 3 launch date?

Ans: It is expected that Chadrayaan-3 will be launched in July, 2023.

Que : What is the difference between ISRO & NASA?

Ans : ISRO and NASA differ in their roles and locations. NASA is the American civilian space agency responsible for conducting research in aeronautics and aerospace, while ISRO serves as India’s primary space agency. NASA’s headquarters is situated in the United States, and the acronym stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Que : Is ISRO equal to NASA?

Ans : Both are space agency working for different countries, therefore, there cannot be a comparison.

Que : Is gate score required for ISRO?

Ans : Depend upon the post for which you apply. For some it does for other it does not.

Que: Is ISRO a Government job?

Ans : Yes.


Que: Who is the father of Indian Space Program?

Ans: The father of Indian Space Program is Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai

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